Saturday, July 07, 2007

Part II: Commentary and Analysis on the Motu Proprio itself

Here is a non-official English translation provided off the Vatican website. Comments throughout the text in bold. When the official translation comes, we shall re-analyze for any substantive changes in wording.

Following this commentary, I will be creating an overall summary of the before and after situation. This will likely come later today or this evening.


"Up to our own times, it has been the constant concern of supreme pontiffs to ensure that the Church of Christ offers a worthy ritual to the Divine Majesty, 'to the praise and glory of His name,' and 'to the benefit of all His Holy Church.'

"Since time immemorial it has been necessary - as it is also for the future - to maintain the principle according to which 'each particular Church must concur with the universal Church, not only as regards the doctrine of the faith and the sacramental signs, but also as regards the usages universally accepted by uninterrupted apostolic tradition, which must be observed not only to avoid errors but also to transmit the integrity of the faith, because the Church's law of prayer corresponds to her law of faith.' (1)

"Among the pontiffs who showed that requisite concern, particularly outstanding is the name of St. Gregory the Great, who made every effort to ensure that the new peoples of Europe received both the Catholic faith and the treasures of worship and culture that had been accumulated by the Romans in preceding centuries. He commanded that the form of the sacred liturgy as celebrated in Rome (concerning both the Sacrifice of Mass and the Divine Office) be conserved. He took great concern to ensure the dissemination of monks and nuns who, following the Rule of St. Benedict, together with the announcement of the Gospel illustrated with their lives the wise provision of their Rule that 'nothing should be placed before the work of God.' In this way the sacred liturgy, celebrated according to the Roman use, enriched not only the faith and piety but also the culture of many peoples. It is known, in fact, that the Latin liturgy of the Church in its various forms [NLM: a reference to the liturgical rites and uses in the Latin rite], in each century of the Christian era, has been a spur to the spiritual life of many saints, has reinforced many peoples in the virtue of religion and fecundated their piety.

"Many other Roman pontiffs, in the course of the centuries, showed particular solicitude in ensuring that the sacred liturgy accomplished this task more effectively. Outstanding among them is St. Pius V who, sustained by great pastoral zeal and following the exhortations of the Council of Trent, renewed the entire liturgy of the Church, oversaw the publication of liturgical books amended and 'renewed in accordance with the norms of the Fathers,' and provided them for the use of the Latin Church.

"One of the liturgical books of the Roman rite is the Roman Missal, which developed in the city of Rome and, with the passing of the centuries, little by little took forms very similar to that it has had in recent times. [NLM: reference to organic development of course.]

"'It was towards this same goal that succeeding Roman Pontiffs directed their energies during the subsequent centuries in order to ensure that the rites and liturgical books were brought up to date and when necessary clarified. From the beginning of this century they undertook a more general reform.' (2) Thus our predecessors Clement VIII, Urban VIII, St. Pius X (3), Benedict XV, Pius XII and Blessed John XXIII all played a part.

"In more recent times, Vatican Council II expressed a desire that the respectful reverence due to divine worship should be renewed and adapted to the needs of our time. Moved by this desire our predecessor, the Supreme Pontiff Paul VI, approved, in 1970, reformed and partly renewed liturgical books for the Latin Church. These, translated into the various languages of the world, were willingly accepted by bishops, priests and faithful. John Paul II amended the third typical edition of the Roman Missal. Thus Roman pontiffs have operated to ensure that 'this kind of liturgical edifice ... should again appear resplendent for its dignity and harmony.' (4)

"But in some regions, no small numbers of faithful adhered and continue to adhere with great love and affection to the earlier liturgical forms. These had so deeply marked their culture and their spirit that in 1984 the Supreme Pontiff John Paul II, moved by a concern for the pastoral care of these faithful, with the special indult 'Quattuor abhinc anno," issued by the Congregation for Divine Worship, granted permission to use the Roman Missal published by Blessed John XXIII in the year 1962. Later, in the year 1988, John Paul II with the Apostolic Letter given as Motu Proprio, 'Ecclesia Dei,' exhorted bishops to make generous use of this power in favor of all the faithful who so desired.

"Following the insistent prayers of these faithful, long deliberated upon by our predecessor John Paul II, and after having listened to the views of the Cardinal Fathers of the Consistory of 22 March 2006, having reflected deeply upon all aspects of the question, invoked the Holy Spirit and trusting in the help of God, with these Apostolic Letters we establish the following: [NLM: here we go...]

"Art 1. The Roman Missal promulgated by Paul VI is the ordinary expression of the 'Lex orandi' (Law of prayer) of the Catholic Church of the Latin rite. Nonetheless, the Roman Missal promulgated by St. Pius V and reissued by Bl. John XXIII is to be considered as an extraordinary expression of that same 'Lex orandi,' and must be given due honour for its venerable and ancient usage. These two expressions of the Church's Lex orandi will in no any way lead to a division in the Church's 'Lex credendi' (Law of belief). They are, in fact two usages of the one Roman rite.

"It is, therefore, permissible to celebrate the Sacrifice of the Mass following the typical edition of the Roman Missal promulgated by Bl. John XXIII in 1962 and never abrogated, as an extraordinary form of the Liturgy of the Church. The conditions for the use of this Missal as laid down by earlier documents 'Quattuor abhinc annis' and 'Ecclesia Dei,' are substituted as follows:

"Art. 2. In Masses celebrated without the people
, each Catholic priest of the Latin rite, whether secular or regular, may use the Roman Missal published by Bl. Pope John XXIII in 1962, or the Roman Missal promulgated by Pope Paul VI in 1970, and may do so on any day with the exception of the Easter Triduum. For such celebrations, with either one Missal or the other, the priest has no need for permission from the Apostolic See or from his Ordinary. [NLM: Private masses. See article 4 for further context. As regards the Paschal Triduum, this is evidently intended to protect the integrity of that season. It isn't suggesting that the classical liturgical books cannot themselves be (publically) used during the Triduum, or that the modern one's must. What would dictate that are the normal pastoral considerations mentioned within this document.]

"Art. 3. Communities of Institutes of consecrated life and of Societies of apostolic life, of either pontifical or diocesan right, wishing to celebrate Mass in accordance with the edition of the Roman Missal promulgated in 1962, for conventual or "community" celebration in their oratories, may do so. If an individual community or an entire Institute or Society wishes to undertake such celebrations often, habitually or permanently, the decision must be taken by the Superiors Major, in accordance with the law and following their own specific decrees and statues. [NLM: This would apply to groups like the ICRSS, FSSP, etc. of course.]

"Art. 4. Celebrations of Mass as mentioned above in art. 2 may - observing all the norms of law - also be attended by faithful who, of their own free will, ask to be admitted. [NLM: One might think of this as the "associate pastor" clause. In short, the faithful can attend the private masses of a priest, which the priest can pursue at his own discretion without any need for permission. This would be particularly effectual where we are dealing with an associate pastor who cannot make formal decisions about the public masses of a parish.]

"Art. 5. õ 1 In parishes, where there is a stable group of faithful [NLM: note that is undefined and therefore at the discretion of the pastor] who adhere to the earlier liturgical tradition, the pastor should willingly accept their requests [NLM: Take note of that...] to celebrate the Mass according to the rite of the Roman Missal published in 1962, and ensure that the welfare of these faithful harmonises with the ordinary pastoral care of the parish, under the guidance of the bishop [NLM: This is a very important point. It might be possible to misinterpret that as meaning the bishop's permission is required. However, given what is said in para. 5, and also given that it is noted that "the pastor should... accept" and particularly given article 7 (see below) that is clearly not the case. It rather simply refers to to the bishop as having a role to generally ensure harmony with the ordinary pastoral care of the parish. This is consistent with what is said of the bishop's role in the explanatory letter.] in accordance with canon 392, avoiding discord and favouring the unity of the whole Church.

õ 2 Celebration in accordance with the Missal of Bl. John XXIII may take place on working days; while on Sundays and feast days one such celebration may also be held. [NLM: this is also important. Presently in practice, such Masses have often been reduced to one on Sundays alone. This is making it clear that celebrating this Missal on weekdays is more than acceptable, and moreover, it is also acceptable that on Sundays and other days of obligation, such as feasts and solemnities, it is not inappropriate for one of the Masses of that schedule to be in the classical use.]

õ 3 For faithful and priests who request it, the pastor should also allow celebrations in this extraordinary form for special circumstances such as marriages, funerals or occasional celebrations, e.g. pilgrimages. [NLM: see the comment above. This is likewise making clear that one must not be limited to the modern use for special-event liturgical occasions like weddings, funerals, etc. In other words, simply because the Pauline missal is the ordinary use of the Roman rite does not mean that in instances where there is a single liturgy occuring, that therefore it must default to the modern use of the Roman rite. Not at all.]

õ 4 Priests who use the Missal of Bl. John XXIII must be qualified to do so and not juridically impeded. [NLM: This is trying to safeguard the quality of celebrations in the classical use. A very good thing. A priest must be able to competently celebrate from those liturgical books. It appears to possibly be left open to the priests discretion to determine if he is so.]

õ 5 In churches that are not parish or conventual churches, it is the duty of the Rector of the church to grant the above permission.

Art. 6. In Masses celebrated in the presence of the people in accordance with the Missal of Bl. John XXIII, the readings may be given in the vernacular, using editions recognised by the Apostolic See. [NLM: It is very good to have this clarification. While not mandated, it is now clearly allowable to have the readings sung or chanted directly from the altar -- or otherwise -- in the vernacular (rather than being read again separately) using an approved liturgical edition. The reports that preceeded the public release of this Motu Proprio that suggested this also applied to the optional use of the new lectionary seem off-base. Nothing against the new lectionary of course, but such would clearly present difficulties given differences in the calendars of the liturgical year, and also the fact that, structurally, the classical use is basd upon an Epistle and Gospel with no additional reading. Therefore, so far as I can see, 'editions' intends to refer to vernacular translations approved by the Holy See, based upon the cycle of readings found in the 1962 Missale Romanum, and not rather the new lectionary.]

"Art. 7. If a group of lay faithful, as mentioned in art. 5 õ 1, has not obtained satisfaction to their requests from the pastor [NLM: this clarifies absolutely that the permission of the bishop is not required for use of the 1962 Missale Romanum in a public celebration in the parish. See aforementioned article and paragraph.], they should inform the diocesan bishop. The bishop is strongly requested to satisfy their wishes. If he cannot arrange for such celebration to take place, the matter should be referred to the Pontifical Commission "Ecclesia Dei". [NLM: in other words, if there aren't local diocesan clergy available or competent.]

"Art. 8. A bishop who, desirous of satisfying such requests, but who for various reasons is unable to do so, may refer the problem to the Commission "Ecclesia Dei" to obtain counsel and assistance.

"Art. 9. õ 1 The pastor, having attentively examined all aspects, may also grant permission to use the earlier ritual for the administration of the Sacraments of Baptism, Marriage, Penance, and the Anointing of the Sick, if the good of souls would seem to require it. [NLM: All previous ritual forms of the sacaments may be used at the priests discretion, though the modern forms of the ritual are yet still normative of course.]

õ 2 Ordinaries are given the right to celebrate the Sacrament of Confirmation using the earlier Roman Pontifical, if the good of souls would seem to require it.

õ 2 Clerics ordained "in sacris constitutis" may use the Roman Breviary promulgated by Bl. John XXIII in 1962.

"Art. 10. The ordinary of a particular place, if he feels it appropriate, may erect a personal parish in accordance with can. 518 for celebrations following the ancient form of the Roman rite, or appoint a chaplain, while observing all the norms of law. [NLM: so again, the likes of a Mater Ecclesiae in Berlin, NJ may also be established, or an FSSP or ICRSS parish and so forth. Of course, this does not come at the expense of less concentrated celebrations in other parishes of a diocese, which are left to the priest's discretion or the request of the faithful. It is not, either-or in that particular sense, though it is not both-and in the sense that the bishop does not have to erect such personal parishes either of course. Such a matter is up to the bishop, unlike the other matter.]

"Art. 11. The Pontifical Commission "Ecclesia Dei", erected by John Paul II in 1988 (5), continues to exercise its function. Said Commission will have the form, duties and norms that the Roman Pontiff wishes to assign it.

"Art. 12. This Commission, apart from the powers it enjoys, will exercise the authority of the Holy See, supervising the observance and application of these dispositions. [NLM: So that commission now has a new role as caretaking that these norms are followed through faithfully.]

"We order that everything We have established with these Apostolic Letters issued as Motu Proprio be considered as "established and decreed", and to be observed from 14 September of this year, Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross, whatever there may be to the contrary.

" From Rome, at St. Peter's, 7 July 2007, third year of Our Pontificate." (1) General Instruction of the Roman Missal, 3rd ed., 2002, no. 397. (2) John Paul II, Apostolic Letter "Vicesimus quintus annus," 4 December 1988, 3: AAS 81 (1989), 899.

(3) Ibid. (4) St. Pius X, Apostolic Letter Motu propio data, "Abhinc duos annos," 23 October 1913: AAS 5 (1913), 449-450; cf John Paul II, Apostolic Letter "Vicesimus quintus annus," no. 3: AAS 81 (1989), 899. (5) Cf John Paul II, Apostolic Letter Motu proprio data "Ecclesia Dei," 2 July 1988, 6: AAS 80 (1988), 1498.

NLM General Summary and Conclusions

The classical form of the Roman rite is freed!

a. The use of the 1962 Missale Romanum is no longer an indult or exemption from the law. It was never abrogated and therefore, never needed an exemption in point of fact.

b. The classical missal may be used by any priest privately, including with the faithful present, at his own discretion. No permission is required.

c. The classical Roman missal may be used for public parish Masses at the discretion of the parish priest without permission of the bishop (though always with a pastoral sense of course).

d. It may likewise be used for special event liturgies, during weekdays and on Sundays and Solemnities.

e. The bishop's role changes now to one who simply takes a pastoral role as with any other issue in a diocese, but he is also bound by these norms as explained in the explanatory letter.

f. The Ecclesia Dei commission now also takes a role of helping to resolve disputes.

g. Apostolic societies and personal parishes continue to operate as normal, established by the bishop, and priest of the aforesaid can, as usual, be brought in to help celebrate such liturgies where there is not one available or competent to do so locally.

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