Sunday, August 14, 2022

Eucharistic Procession by Boat in Louisiana on the Assumption

On Monday, August 15th, the eighth annual Eucharistic Procession by boat down Bayou Teche, Louisiana, will take place as part of the celebration of the feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Patroness of the Acadian people and of the Acadiana region. It is also a day that marks the 257th anniversary of the arrival of French-Canadian immigrants who brought the Catholic faith to Acadiana after enduring great trials and suffering. (The procession was first held in this manner in 2015 for the 250th anniversary.) The 40-mile procession this year coincides with the first year of the three-year Eucharistic Revival underway in the United States.
His Excellency Glen Provost, bishop of the Diocese of Lake Charles, comments, “The Fête Dieu du Têche is a marvelous and fitting way to observe and contribute to the Eucharistic Revival which is on-going for us in the United States. The Most Blessed Sacrament traveling by boat on the bayou which was a major channel of transportation for our ancestors calls to mind the vital role that the Eucharist has played in the faith of Acadiana.”
As part of the effort to cultivate a deeper devotion to Jesus’ Presence in the Most Holy Eucharist, boaters will be able to choose a patron from a list of 50 Eucharistic witnesses – saints and blessed who exemplified a life totally dedicated to Jesus in the Holy Eucharist, such as Thomas Aquinas, Jean-Marie Vianney, Katherine Drexel, Bl. Carlo Acutis and Mother Teresa. Boats will feature cutouts, flags, and banners bearing the name of their Eucharistic Saint and present quotations from them about the importance of the Holy Eucharist. Families, church parishes, and Christian communities are encouraged to participate by registering a boat and traveling down the Bayou Teche or by following in their vehicle and gathering at the various stops for recitation of the Holy Rosary and Benediction. Catholic schools are also encouraged to join either by boat or by gathering at one of the stops along the way.
During Fȇte-Dieu du Teche the Blessed Sacrament is fixed on an altar on the lead boat under a canopy. Two bell boats announce Jesus’ arrival and the thurifer boat carries a thurible which burns over 10 lbs. of incense along the journey. A statue of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary and a statue of St. Joseph follow on individual boats behind Jesus. The Eucharistic Procession pauses and disembarks at makeshift altars along the Bayou Teche for recitation of the Rosary and Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament. For those who are unable to participate by boat, all are invited to join for Mass at St. Leo the Great in Leonville at 8 am and then to drive and gather at any of the planned stops along the banks behind the various churches along Bayou Teche. The prayers will be broadcast live on radio and live streamed, so persons with compromised health can listen while remaining in their vehicles. Priests will be available at each stop for Confessions.
For more information, visit the website or Fete-Dieu du Teche on Facebook, or contact Fr. Michael Champagne, CJC by telephone at (337) 394-6550 or email at Videos from past processions can be found on YouTube channel:
Itinerary for Eighth Annual Eucharistic Boat Procession on Bayou Teche
Monday, August 15, 2022, Solemnity of the Assumption of Mary
8:00 am Holy Mass in French with Bishop John Douglas Deshotel, D.D. at St. Leo the Great Church, Leonville
9:00 am Procession from St. Leo’s to the Leonville boat landing
9:30 am Boat Procession departs
10:20 am Arrive at Arnaudville and disembark for Rosary and Benediction
11:45 am Arrive at Cecilia and disembark for Rosary and Benediction
1:35 pm Arrive at Breaux Bridge and disembark for Rosary and Benediction
3:15 pm Arrive at Parks and disembark for Rosary and Benediction
4:45 pm Flotilla arrives at St. Martinville behind Notre Dame; Foot Procession to Notre Dame de Perpetuel Secours for Benediction
5:00 pm Procession from Notre Dame to St. Martin de Tours Church for Benediction
5:30 pm Procession down Main Street to Our Lady of Sorrows Chapel for Solemn Vespers & Final Benediction
6:00 pm Solemn Vespers and Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament at Mater Dolorosa Chapel
Some highlights from last year:

Saturday, August 13, 2022

Photopost Request: Assumption 2022

Our next photopost series will be for Monday’s feast of the Assumption; please send your photos of celebrations in either the EF or OF to for inclusion, and be sure to include the name and location of the church, and any other information you think important. As always, we are very glad to include photographs of celebrations in the Eastern rites and the Ordinariate rite, as well as Vespers and other parts of the Divine Office, blessings, processions, the vigil Mass etc. Evangelize through beauty!

From last year’s first Assumption photopost: the traditional blessing of herbs and flowers at Old St Patrick Oratory in St Louis, Missouri, celebrated by a newly ordained priest of the Institute of Christ the King.
From the second post, a procession with a statue of the Virgin Mary at the Sanctuary of the Assumption in Calasca, Italy, accompanied by a local honor guard which has been active since 1622.

Friday, August 12, 2022

The Cultural Legacy of Saint Clare

Simone Martini, “Saint Clare of Assisi,” ca. 1322–1326

An eighteen-year-old young woman by the name of Chiara Offreduccio (1194-1253) heard St. Francis of Assisi preach during a Lenten service and was forever changed. Renouncing her powerful father’s plans for her to marry, she left home on the evening of Palm Sunday and, in St. Francis’ chapel of the Portiuncula, had her long, beautiful hair cut and her rich grown replaced with a plain robe and veil. Clare of Assisi, as she was now known, went on to found the Order of Poor Ladies and write their Rule of Life, the first women in Church history to do so. After her death, the order changed its name to the Order of Saint Clare, aka the Clarisses or Poor Clares.

Clare and her sisters lived a highly ascetical life, but that does not mean that this holy woman had no craving for a good dinner companion. Repeatedly she asked St. Francis if they could sup together. Each time Francis denied her request, but he finally relented at the urging of his disciples. Francis had the table set on the bare ground, which was his custom. The two saints sat down along with several of their companions. As the first course was being served, Francis began speaking of God so sweetly and profoundly that the entire group went into a rapture. Meanwhile, it appeared to the residents of Assisi that Francis’ church (St. Mary of the Angels) and the entire forest around it were on fire. Grabbing their extinguishers and buckets of water, they raced to where the group was dining, only to find them safe and sound, rapt in contemplation. The Little Flowers reports: “Then they knew for sure that it had been a heavenly and not a material fire that God had miraculously shown them to symbolize the fire of divine love which was burning in the souls of those holy friars and nuns.” Happy and relieved, they withdrew. But did Clare actually get to dine with St. Francis, or did the dinner grow cold while the mystical fire raged hot?

Clare suffered from chronic poor health, but she made good use of a bad situation. She is a patroness of embroiderers and related fields (needle workers, laundry workers, gilders, and goldsmiths) because she spent her years of illness making ornate vestments for the Mass. And thanks to Pope Pius XII in 1958, Clare is the patron saint of television and television actors, workers, and writers because from her sick bed she saw and heard a Christmas Mass miraculously projected onto the wall of her room. St. Clare is also a patroness of eye problems, sore eyes in particular, either because of all those hours embroidering or all those hours watching TV.
Clare of Assisi is also a patroness of good weather, perhaps for no other reason than that her name means “clear.” Filipino Catholics bribe the saint with eggs wrapped in colorful cellophane paper so that they will have clear skies on their wedding day and other important occasions. Why eggs? Perhaps because egg whites are called claras in Spanish.

Speaking of eggs, rompope is a Mexican vanilla liqueur made with yolk, sugar, milk, cinnamon, and cane alcohol. According to legend, the Poor Clares in the Mexican city of Puebla de los Angeles used hundreds of egg whites to shellac the sacred images in their church. Not wishing to be wasteful, they took the yolks and invented Rompope. Today Rompope can be made at home, but it is also produced commercially under several labels including Santa Clara Rompope (which features an image of Saint Clare on the bottle).

The Santa Clara convent in Puebla de Los Angeles, incidentally, has also given us Tortitas de Santa Clara, Santa Clara cookies. This popular Mexican treat is like a shortbread made with a pumpkin seed glaze.

Festival of St Louis IX in St Louis, Missouri, Aug. 24-25

The Oratory of Ss Gregory and Augustine in St Louis, Missouri, will hold a special series of events for the feast day of the city’s patron Saint on August 24-25, including several celebrations of the Divine Office, solemn Mass, and a procession to the statue of St Louis in Forest Park. The oratory is hosted at St Luke the Evangelist Catholic Church, located at 7230 Dale Avenue; see the poster below for details.

Thursday, August 11, 2022

The Abbey of Chaise-Dieu (Part 2): The Tapestries

Last week, we shared some pictures recently taken by a friend of one of the most beautiful abbeys in France, the Chaise-Dieu. The former monastery buildings now also house a very remarkable set of early 16th century tapestries, which were designed to hang in the choir of the abbey church. These were commissioned by the abbot of Saint-Nectaire, one of La Chaise-Dieu’s many dependent houses, in 1501; each tapestry depicts a New Testament scene alongside related scenes from the Old Testament.
The Crucifixion, with the Binding of Isaac (Gen. 22) at the upper left, and the Bronze Serpent (Num. 21) at the upper right.

The Birth of Christ, with Moses and the Burning Bush (Ex. 3) to the left, and the Flourishing of the Rod of Aaron (Num. 17) to the right. At the top are the prophets Habakkuk and Isaiah, with banderoles on which are written their respective prophecies of the Incarnation: Habakkuk 3, “O Lord, I have heard Thy report, and grown afraid...”; Isaiah 9, “Unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son is given.”
The Adoration of the Magi" to the left, the episode recounted in 2 Samuel 23, 13-17, of the three soldiers who bring water from the fountain of Bethlehem to King David; to the right, and Solomon and the Queen of Sheba (3 Reg. 10). At the top are King David and Isaiah, with banderoles on which are written from Psalm 71 “Kings shall bring thee gifts”, and from Isaiah 60, “They shall adores the traces of Thy feet.”
The Massacre of the Holy Innocents: to the left, the murder of the priests of the house of Achimelech (1 Samuel 22); to the right, and Queen Athaliah killing the sons of Ochoziah (4 Reg. 11). At the top are the prophets Jeremiah and Hosea, with banderoles on which are written from Jeremiah 31 “A voice was heard in Rama, of mourning and wailing”, and from Hosea 8, “They reigned, and not from from me.”
The Raising of Lazarus: to the left, Elijah raising a dead child (3 Kings); to the right, Elisha doing the same (4 Reg. 5). At the top, King David has on his banderole the words of Psalm 118, “Thy word giveth me life”, and the prophet Samuel, “The Lord killeth and maketh alive”, although these words are actually spoken by his mother Anna in her canticle in 1 Samuel 2.

Dominican Sung Mass This Saturday for Blessed Michael McGivney in Raritan, New Jersey

The Sgt. John Basilone Knights of Columbus Council of Raritan, New Jersey, is sponsoring a Sung Mass in the Dominican Rite in honor of Blessed Michael McGivney this Saturday, August 13, at the church of St Joseph (details below) with veneration of his first-class relic afterwards. The Mass will begin at 9 am, followed by the veneration of a 1st-class relic of Fr McGivney; Fr Leo Camurati O.P. will then deliver a reflection on his life and work in founding the Knights of Columbus. The church is located at 16 E. Somerset Street in Raritan.
The evening before, a holy hour vigil will be held at Saint Joseph’s from 7-8pm for those who wish to venerate the relic, but cannot make the Mass, with Vespers and Benediction.

Wednesday, August 10, 2022

The Feasts of St Lawrence

Since the earliest times, St Lawrence has been venerated as a patron Saint of the city of Rome, along with Ss Peter and Paul, and his feast day has always been one of the most important in the ecclesiastical year. A remarkable number of Roman churches are dedicated to him, several more, in fact, than are dedicated to either of the Apostolic founders of the Church in the Eternal City. Among them are the Patriarchal Basilica of St Lawrence outside-the-Walls, where he is buried, and three of the most ancient parishes in the historical center of the city: San Lorenzo in Panisperna, (the reputed site of his martyrdom), San Lorenzo in Lucina, and San Lorenzo in Damaso. These four churches are frequently found on the list of station churches from Septuagesima Sunday to Low Sunday, in proximity to stational observances in honor of Ss Peter and Paul. San Lorenzo in Miranda was one of the first major churches to be built in the heart of the ancient city’s political and religious life, the Roman Forum; it sits within the portico of the temple of the divinized Emperor Antoninus Pius and his wife Faustina, on the steps of which the great martyr was said to have been tried and condemned.

The Basilica of Saint Lawrence outside-the-Walls, in an eighteenth century engraving by Giuseppe Vasi.
Two private chapels of the popes are also dedicated to him, San Lorenzo ‘in Palatio’ at the Lateran, and the Niccoline Chapel at the Vatican. The former was built in the mid-8th century, and after various restorations and embellishments, became a papal chapel about three centuries later; rebuilt by Nicholas III (1277-80), it now survives only in part within a building known as the Scala Sancta, across the street from the pope’s cathedral. The chapel’s nickname ‘Sancta Sanctorum – the Holy of Holies’, does not come from its status as a papal chapel, but from the amazing collection of relics formerly kept therein: among them, a piece of the grill on which St Lawrence was roasted alive, and some parts of his body.

In the 330-year period from 1048 to 1378, the popes spent roughly 250 years outside of Rome; after so long a period of neglect and partial abandonment, and two massive fires in the 14th century, most of the vast complex of buildings around the Lateran was in no state to be lived in. The popes therefore took up residence at the Vatican, and have been there ever since. In 1447, Nicholas V built a new chapel within the Vatican, and commissioned the Dominican painter Fra Angelico to paint the walls with stories of the two deacon martyrs, St Stephen and St Lawrence, to whom the chapel is jointly dedicated.
The Martyrdom of Saint Stephen, on the left wall of the Chapel of Nicholas V, by Fra Angelico. The martyrdom of Saint Lawrence is directly beneath it, but the part that shows Lawrence on the grill in the lower right hand corner is ruined.
The association of Ss Stephen and Lawrence, naturally suggested by the parallels between their lives and deaths, figures prominently in art and liturgy in Rome. Both were deacons under the authority of the pope in their respective cities, Stephen in Jerusalem under St Peter, and Lawrence in Rome under St Sixtus II, the most venerated of the early popes martyred after Peter. Both were put in charge of the Church’s charitable activities by the popes whom they served, and both were eloquent preachers of the Christian faith. Both suffered terrible martyrdoms, Stephen by stoning, as recounted in the Acts of the Apostles, while Lawrence was roasted alive.

In the office of St Stephen, the third antiphon of Lauds (partially quoting Psalm 62, with which it is sung), reads “Adhaesit anima mea post te, quia caro mea lapidata est pro te, Deus meus. – My soul hath stuck close to Thee, because my flesh was stoned for Thy sake, my God.” In the office of St Lawrence, this same antiphon is changed to “Adhaesit anima mea post te, quia caro mea igne cremata est pro te, Deus meus. – My soul hath stuck close to Thee, because my flesh was burnt for Thy sake, my God.” The artistic pairing of the two done so beautifully by Fra Angelico is also found twice in the Sancta Sanctorum which the Niccoline Chapel replaced, in the mosaics over the altar and in the frescoes that adorn its walls.

St Lawrence in the 11th century mosaics over the altar of the Sancta Sanctorum. (Image from Wikimedia Commons by Sailko, CC BY 3.0)
The martyrdom of St Lawrence in the late 13th-century frescoes on the walls of the Sancta Sanctorum. The Emperor Decius appears on the left; the medieval accounts of St. Lawrence usually place his death in the persecution of Decius in 250-51, rather than that of Valerian in 257-58.
On August 3rd, a two-week long cycle of feasts associated with St Lawrence begins with the Finding of St Stephen, a feast of the universal calendar of the Roman Rite until 1960. The body of St Stephen was discovered in the year 415, along with those of Gamaliel, his son Abibas, and Nicodemus, when Gamaliel appeared to Lucian, a priest of Jerusalem, and revealed the place of their collective burial. Relics of Stephen were brought to many places throughout the world; in the final book of The City of God, St Augustine describes a number of miracles that took place when a part of them came to Africa, including the raising from the dead of six people. Another portion of them was brought to Rome in the reign of Pope Pelagius II (579-90), who placed them in the basilica of St Lawrence outside-the-Walls; the Golden Legend tells the story that when the pope went to lay them in Lawrence’s tomb, the Roman martyr moved to one side to make room for his fellow Levite. The early 13th-century porch still has extensive remains of original frescoes of that period, illustrating the history of the two great deacon martyrs; sadly, these were already in poor condition when the church was hit with a bomb during World War II, damaging them further.
The relics of St Stephen being laid to rest in the tomb of St Lawrence, by Lorenzo di Niccolò, ca. 1412.; from the Brooklyn Museum.
On August 6th occurs the feast of St Sixtus II, who was martyred at the catacomb of Callixtus, along with six of the seven deacons of the church of Rome, the seventh being Lawrence. When the edict of persecution was issued by the Emperor Valerian in the year 257, the holy Pope ordered Lawrence to distribute all of the wealth of the church to the poor of the city. Having done so, Lawrence then saw Sixtus being led to martyrdom and, as told by St Ambrose, addressed him thus: “Whither goest thou without thy son, father? Whither, holy priest, dost thou hasten without thy deacon? Never wast thou want to offer sacrifice without thy minister. What then hath displeased thee in me, father? Hast thou found me ignoble? Make proof surely whether thou didst choose a worthy minister. Dost thou deny a share in thy blood to one to whom thou didst entrust the consecration of the Lord’s blood, and a share in the celebration of the sacraments?... Abraham offered his son, Peter sent Stephen before him…” To this Sixtus replied, “I do not leave or abandon thee, son, but greater contests await thee. We, as elder men, receive the way of an easier combat; a more glorious triumph against the tyrant awaiteth thee as a younger man. Soon shalt thou come after, cease weeping; after three days shalt thou follow me, as levite followeth priest.” (These words from the 39th chapter of St. Ambrose’s De Officiis form the basis of several antiphons and responsories in the office of Saint Lawrence.) Sixtus and his deacons were then beheaded by Roman soldiers.
The martyrdom of St. Sixtus and his deacons, from a 14th century manuscript of the lives of the saints.
St Sixtus is named in the traditional canon of the Mass, immediately after the first three successors of St Peter, followed by two contemporary bishops also martyred under Valerian, Pope Cornelius and St Cyprian of Carthage; St Lawrence is then named first among the non-bishops. A Roman station church near the Lateran is named for Sixtus; it was entrusted to Dominican nuns within the lifetime of St Dominic, who died on his feast day. (The church attached to the Dominicans’ Roman University of St Thomas, also called the Angelicum, is dedicated to both Sixtus and Dominic.) After their founder was canonized in 1234, the Order of Preachers kept his feast on the 5th of August, rather than the day of his death, in deference to the much older feast; this remained their custom until the reforms of the later 16th century, when he was moved back a day to make way for Our Lady of the Snows. Likewise, when Pope Callixtus III instituted the feast of the Transfiguration in 1456, assigning it to the sixth of August, many churches simply ignored it because the day was already occupied by St Sixtus.
The Madonna and Child with Ss Sixtus II and Barbara, generally known as “the Sistine Madonna”, by Raphael Sanzio, 1513-14; commissioned for the monastery of San Sisto in Piacenza, which had relics of both Saints.
The ninth of August, the vigil of St Lawrence, was formerly also kept as the feast of St Romanus, which was reduced to a commemoration in the Tridentine reform. He was said to have been a soldier converted to Christ by the preaching of Lawrence, who baptized him while in jail awaiting execution; Romanus was beheaded at the orders of the Emperor the day before Lawrence was killed.

The tenth is the feast of Lawrence himself, the day of his martyrdom by being roasted alive on a grill; the Byzantine tradition, which devoted the sixth of August to the Transfiguration centuries before the Latin church, commemorates Sixtus, his deacons, and Romanus all together along with Lawrence himself on this day. The story of his martyrdom is told thus in the Roman Breviary of 1529. (Valerian appears as an official under the previous persecuting emperor, Decius.)
And Decius said to the blessed Lawrence: Sacrifice to the gods. And he answered, “I offer myself as a sacrifice to God, unto the odor of sweetness, for a contrite spirit is a sacrifice to God.” But the executioners pressed on in adding the coals, and placing them under the grill… . The blessed Lawrence said, “Learn, wretched Valerian, how great is the might of my Lord, for thy coals bring me refreshment, but to thee eternal torment; for he knows that I denied not his holy name when accused, I confessed Christ when asked, I gave thanks while being roasted.” … And all those present began to marvel, since Decius had commanded him to be roasted alive. But with a most comely countenance he said, “I give thee thanks, Lord Jesus Christ, who hast deigned to strengthen me.” And lifting up his eyes to Valerian, he said, “Behold wretched man, thou hast roasted one side; turn me over, and eat.” Then giving thanks to the Lord, he said, “I give thee thanks, Lord Jesus Christ, because I have merited to enter thy gates.” And saying this he gave up his spirit.
Saint Lawrence, in the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia at Ravenna, ca. 450. The armoire on the left contains four books labelled with the names of the four Evangelists, a reference to the custom of keeping liturgical books locked in the sacristy in an era when any book was an expensive rarity. The deacon would process to the sacristy when it was time for the Gospel, receive the book from a porter, and process it out, a custom still found in the traditional Ambrosian liturgy.
The thirteenth of August is the feast of St Hippolytus, an officer of the guards in the prison where St Lawrence was held, and also converted by him to Christianity. In the Breviary of 1529, he is said to have taken the body of Lawrence for burial; reproved for this by the Emperor, and threatened with torture and death, he answered “May I merit to be a likeness of the blessed martyr Lawrence, whom you have dared to name with your polluted mouth.” After torture, he was killed by being torn apart by wild horses. The story is normally dismissed as a fabrication by modern scholars on the grounds that this manner of death, reported by the poet Prudentius, is the same as that of the Greek mythological character Hippolytus, the son of Theseus who was dragged to death by the horses of his chariot. It seems not to have occurred to any of the modern skeptics that the persecutors might have been inspired by his name to choose this manner of killing him in imitation of the mythological story.

It is certainly true, however, that there is much confusion about Hippolytus’ history; when Pope St Damasus I (366-84) placed an epitaph upon his tomb recounting his martyrdom, he stated that he himself “relied on purely oral tradition, which he does not guarantee: ‘Damasus tells these things which he has heard; it is Christ who maketh proof of them.’ ” (Loeb Classical Library, The Poems of Prudentius, p. 304, footnote) Prudentius also attests that he personally was healed of various ailments more than once while praying at Hippolytus’ tomb. In the Communicantes of the traditional Ambrosian canon, Sixtus, Lawrence and Hippolytus are named (in that order) immediately after the twelve Apostles, indicating how great the devotion to them was in the see of Milan in antiquity.

The Saint Hippolytus triptych by Dietric Bouts the Elder, ca. 1470.
Like all of the most important feasts, that of St Lawrence was traditionally celebrated with an octave; the octave day has a proper Mass, like the octave of Ss Peter and Paul, sharing only the Epistle and Gospel with the feast day. The introit of this Mass is taken from Psalm 16, which is also said at Matins of St Lawrence: “Thou hast proved my heart, and visited it by night, thou hast tried me by fire: and iniquity hath not been found in me.” The words “visited (my heart) by night” refer to the Emperor’s threat to torture Lawrence for the length of the night, to which the great Levite answered, “My night hath no darkness, but in it all things shine brightly in the light.”

What They Requested, What They Expected, and What Happened: An Addendum, from Pope Paul VI

Cardinal Montini, in favour of keeping
the Roman Canon in Latin
As an addendum to Dr Kwasniewski's excellent translations a couple of days ago of what the Fathers of the Second Vatican Council requested and expected would happen with regards to the use of vernacular languages in the Mass, I thought I would add something else from the conciliar Acta that NLM readers (and others) may find of interest.

This particular extract comes from the meetings of the Central Preparatory Commission (CPC) of Vatican II, which met over seven sessions held between June 1961 and June 1962. The CPC was the body that was responsible for discussing and refining the schemata drafted by the various preparatory commissions, and which were due to be put before the Council at its first session. The draft Constitution on the Liturgy was discussed by the CPC at its fifth session (26 March to 3 April 1962). Among its members was the Archbishop of Milan, one Giovanni Battista Cardinal Montini, who would be elected Pope Paul VI in 1963, and had the following to say about the use of the vernacular in the Mass (my translation: Montini's own emphases are in italics; my emphasis is in bold):
The Latin language, proper to the Roman Rite, must be preserved, for multiple and serious reasons, frequently confirmed by the Church.
But this statement does not invalidate the other, expressed several times, even publicly from the first speakers in this group or heard from the Commission of the Ecumenical Council, that is, “language is not to be attributed as among the first elements of religion (it is not ‘of the essence of religion’, as the philosophers say), even if one and the same language is a clear sign of unity and an effective instrument for the accurate transmission of truth.”
Do we not see the grave and ultimate loss that is imminent? If the common language is excluded from the sacred Liturgy, we will certainly miss the best opportunity to instruct the faithful, to restore divine worship… indeed, this [missed opportunity] happens because of reasons that are not pertinent to ‘the substance of religion’!
The proper or common language of each nation must be used:
In the first part of the Mass (the Liturgy of the word, as it is called): whether in the oration (Collect), because according to the thinking of Saint Paul, the word “Amen” demands the understanding of the people; or in the Introit, since this announces the mystery to be celebrated; or in the Epistle and Gospel, as is clear; or in the Profession of Faith (Creed), which best concludes the teaching of either the Prophet or Apostle or Christ or the Church; or in the oration at the Offertory [i.e. the secret/super oblata], as this is the most excellent invocation of the whole community, already used since the second century of the Christian era, and which provides an opportunity to declare the “intention of the sacrifice”.
In the rest of the Mass, the Latin language will be kept, except perhaps for the Lord’s Prayer (Our Father), which is, as it were, the summit of public prayer, and is the best preparation of souls for Communion.
Even in hymns (cf. Saint Paul), the common language should be used, so that the people can understand their poetry and beauty, and may be easily lifted up to God.

And the Latin text of his intervention at the CPC meeting:

[Lingua latina servanda est ut romani ritus propria, ob multiplices gravesque causas, saepius ab Ecclesia confirmatas.
Sed hoc enuntiatum alterum non infirmat enuntiatum quad saepius, etiam coram Consilio primario seu hac Commissione Oecumenici Concilii audivimus, nempe « linguam non esse inter prima religionis elementa adscribendam (non esse “de essentia religionis”, ut philosophi aiunt), etiamsi una eademque lingua clarum sit signum unitatis atque efficax instrumentum ad veritates accurate tradendas ».
An grave extremumque damnum quad imminet non videmus? Si lingua vulgaris a sacra Liturgia excluditur, optima certe omittitur occasio populum recte instituendi, divinum cultum restaurandi… et hoc quidem fit ob causas quae « ad substantiam religionis » non pertinent!
Lingua uniuscuiusque gentis propria seu vulgaris est adhibenda: In priore Missae parte (Liturgia, ut dicitur, verbi): sive in Oratione (Collecta), quia ex sententia Sancti Pauli, verbum « Amen » exigit ut populus intellegat; sive in Introitu, quippe qui mysterium celebrandum nuntiat; sive in Epistola et in Evangelio, ut patet; sive in Fidei Professione (Credo), quae doctrinam vel Prophetae vel Apostoli vel Christi vel Ecclesiae optime concludit; sive in Oratione ad Offertorium, utpote quae excellentissima totius communitatis sit deprecatio, iam inde a saeculo secundo aevi christiani adhibita, atque occasionem praebeat « intentionem sacrificii » declarandi.
In reliqua Missae parte sermo latinus servetur, excepta fortasse Oratione Dominica (Pater Noster), quae veluti culmen publicae deprecationis est animasque ad Communionem optime parat.
Etiam in canticis (cf. Sanctus Paulus) usurpetur sermo vulgaris ut populus, eorum poësin ac venustatem intellegendo, ad Deum facile elevetur.] (ADP II.3, pp. 86-87)
Pope Paul VI, after he had changed his mind and
decided to "sacrifice" the Latin language
Readers may also find Cardinal Montini's intervention at the Council itself of interest (AS I.1, pp. 313-316), as it strikes very similar notes to what he had said at the CPC (and, incidentally, in his pre-conciliar votumADA II.3, pp. 374-381):
[E]specially when it comes to the language to be used in worship, the use of the ancient language handed down by our forefathers, namely, the Latin language, should for the Latin Church be firm and stable in those parts of the rite which are sacramental and properly and truly priestly. This must be done so that the unity of the Mystical Body at prayer, as well as the accuracy of the sacred formulas, is religiously observed. However, as far as the people are concerned, any difficulty in understanding can be removed in the didactic parts of the sacred Liturgy, and the faithful also given the opportunity to express in comprehensible words their prayers, in which they call upon God. (General Congregation IV, 22 October 1962; my emphasis)
[Latin: [M]axime cum agitur de lingua in cultu adhibenda, usus linguae antiquae et a maioribus traditae, videlicet linguae latinae pro Ecclesia latina, firmus sit ac stabilis in iis partibus ritus quae sunt sacramentales ac proprie vereque sacerdotales. Hoc ideo fieri debet, ut unitas Corporis Mystici orantis accuratio sacrarum formularum religiose serventur. Tamen ad populum quod attinet, quaevis difficultas intelligendi auferatur in partibus didacticis sacrae Liturgiae, ac detur fidelibus quoque facultas exprimendi verbis comprehensibilibus preces suas, quas Deo adhibent.]
That the man who would become Paul VI later allowed the entire Mass, even the Canon, to be celebrated in the vernacular, jettisoning Latin as antithetical to the "understanding" and "participation" of the faithful (see his General Audience of 26 November 1969) – contrary to the intentions of the Council Fathers and contrary to his own thoughts just a few years prior – is a tragedy from which the Church is, sadly, still reaping the so-called 'rewards'.
For those who wish to read the Acta of Vatican II for themselves to see what the intentions of the Council Fathers actually were, as opposed to what the partisan defenders of the post-conciliar liturgical reforms frequently tell us they were, 54 of the 62 volumes (along with 2 of the 4 supplementary volumes) at the time of writing are freely available online here.

Tuesday, August 09, 2022

The Vigil of St Lawrence

In the Roman Rite, the term “vigilia – vigil” traditionally means a penitential day of preparation for a major feast. The Mass of a Saint’s vigil is celebrated after None, as are the Masses of the ferias of Lent or the Ember Days, and in violet vestments; however, the deacon and subdeacon do not wear folded chasubles, as they do in Lent, but the dalmatic and tunicle. The Mass has neither the Gloria nor the Creed, the Alleluja is simply omitted before the Gospel, not replaced with a Tract, and Benedicamus Domino is said at the end in place of Ite, missa est.

Folio 100r of the Gellone Sacramentary, a sacramentary of the mixed Gelasian type written in 780-800 AD. The Mass of the vigil of St Lawrence begins with the large A in the middle of the page; the preface cited below begins with the decorated VD second from the bottom. (Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des Manuscrits, Latin 12048)
Before the Tridentine reform, the vigil of a Saint consisted solely of the Mass, and had no presence in either the Roman version of the Divine Office, or in that of most other Uses. A minority custom, which seems to have been predominantly German, gave an Office to the vigils of Saints, which consisted of a homily at Matins, and the use of the collect of the vigil as the principal collect of the day; the rest of the Office was that of the feria. The Breviary of St Pius V adopted this latter custom for the vigils of Saints, a rare example of change in an otherwise extremely conservative reform; but even for the Roman Rite, this was not an absolute novelty. Historically, the vigils of the major feasts of the Lord (Christmas, Epiphany etc.) did include the Office, and the change in 1568 simply extended the scope of a well-established custom.

Writing at the end of the 13th century, the liturgical commentator William Durandus notes as one of the special privileges of St Lawrence that he is the only martyr whose feast has a vigil, a custom which he shares with the Virgin Mary and the Apostles. More anciently this was not the case; the Gelasian Sacramentary also included vigils of the martyrs Gervasius and Protasius on June 17th, and of Ss John and Paul on June 25th. However, these had already disappeared from the Gregorian Sacramentary by the mid-9th century, and the fact that St Lawrence’s vigil was retained certainly indicates the universality and importance of devotion to him. The same ancient sacramentaries have vigils for the Assumption, the birth of St John the Baptist, Ss Peter and Paul, and St Andrew; they were later given to the other Apostles whose feasts occur outside Eastertide, and to the feast of All Saints.

St Lawrence Distributing Alms to the Poor; fresco by the Blessed Angelico from the Chapel of Pope Nicholas V, 1447-49, now in the Vatican Museums.
The story is well known that during the persecution of the Emperor Valerian in the mid-3rd century, St Lawrence was the deacon in Rome in charge of the Church’s charities. When he was arrested and told to hand the riches of the Church over to the Romans, he distributed all the money to the poor, whom he then brought to the residence of the prefect of Rome, and showing them to him, said, “These are the riches of the Church.” The liturgy refers to this by using Psalm 111, 9, “He hath distributed, he hath given to the poor: his justice remaineth for ever and ever” as both the Introit and Gradual of the vigil of St Lawrence; the same text is cited by St Paul in the Epistle of the feast day, 2 Corinthians 9, 6-10. St Maximus of Turin also cites this verse in a sermon on St Lawrence: “How profound and how heavenly was the counsel of this man of the spirit, that he should take care of the needy; and since the crowd was using up what he had given them, nothing could be found for the persecutor to take; for indeed he followed the saying ‘He hath distributed etc.’ ” (Homilia 74 in natali S. Laurentii; PL LVII 401A)

The Epistle of the vigil, Sirach 51, 1-8 and 12, appears in the Wurzburg lectionary, the very oldest of the Roman Rite, around 650 AD; it was clearly chosen for the reference to St Lawrence’s martyrdom by being roasted alive on a grill. “Thou hast delivered me, according to the multitude of the mercy of thy name, from them that did roar, prepared to devour. Out of the hands of them that sought my life, and from the gates of afflictions, which compassed me about. From the oppression of the flame which surrounded me, and in the midst of the fire I was not burnt. From the depth of the belly of hell, and from an unclean tongue, and from lying words, from an unjust king, and from a slanderous tongue.” The “unjust king” is, of course, the Emperor Valerian, in contrast to whom St Lawrence’s “justice remaineth for ever and ever.”

The Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence, by Titian, 1567, from the Spanish Royal Monastery of the Escorial.
The Gospel, Matthew 16, 24-27, appears in the same lectionary only on the vigil of St Lawrence, but was later extended to the Common of a Single Martyr. (Commons of the Saints had not yet been created as a feature of Roman liturgical books when the Wurzburg lectionary was written.) The first line, “If any man will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me.”, may have been chosen in reference to the story of St Lawrence’s martyrdom, as told by St Ambrose.

When Lawrence saw Pope St Sixtus II being led to martyrdom, he addressed him thus: “Whither goest thou without thy son, father? Whither, holy priest, dost thou hasten without thy deacon? Never wast thou want to offer sacrifice without thy minister. What then hath displeased thee in me, father? Hast thou found me ignoble? Make proof surely whether thou didst choose a worthy minister. Dost thou deny a share in thy blood to one to whom thou didst entrust the consecration of the Lord’s blood, and a share in the celebration of the sacraments?... Abraham offered his son, Peter sent Stephen before him…” To this Sixtus replied, “I do not leave or abandon thee, son, but greater contests await thee. We, as elder men, receive the way of an easier combat; a more glorious triumph against the tyrant awaiteth thee as a younger man. Soon shalt thou come after, cease weeping; after three days shalt thou follow me, as levite followeth priest.” (These words from the 39th chapter of St. Ambrose’s De Officiis form the basis of several antiphons and responsories in the office of St Lawrence.)
Ss Benedict, Sixtus II, and the Martyr Proculus by Simone di FIlippo, ca. 1380. (Image from Wikipedia by SilviaZamb, CC BY-SA 3.0)
The Offertory is beautifully selected from the book of Job, who, like Lawrence, is honored by the Church as one who showed great patience in suffering. “My prayer is pure, and therefore I ask that a place be given in heaven to my voice; for there is my judge, and He that knoweth me is on high; let my plea arise to the Lord.” (from the end of Job 16) The text is loosely cited from the Old Latin version, not the Vulgate of St Jerome, which indicates that it is a piece of great antiquity. One of Durandus’ predecessors in the field of liturgical commentary, the Benedictine abbot Rupert of Deutz (ca. 1075-1130), wrote a book about the terrible fire which destroyed the town of Deutz, in which he refers frequently to both Job and St Lawrence, and cites this offertory. “Thou, o blessed Martyr, … were the Job of thy times, and now, and until the end of the world, Christ and His Church hear thy cry, the great cry of thy passion, … She (the Church) first heard thy cry, and first joined thee in it, and taught us to cry out with Her in these words, which first were the words of Job… but nevertheless are the words of the Holy Church in her afflictions, and are mostly perfectly suitable to Thee, ‘My prayer is pure etc.’ ” (De incendio oppidi Tuitii sua aetate viso liber aureus, cap. 21; P.L. 170 354B)

The Gelasian Sacramentary also contained a Preface for both the vigil and feast of St Lawrence, of which the former reads as follows, a lovely exposition of the reason for celebrating the feasts of the Saints every year.

Truly it is worth and just, meet and profitable to salvation, that we should give Thee thanks always and everywhere, o Lord, holy Father, almighty and everlasting God, by anticipating the blessed struggles of the glorious martyr Lawrence, whose honorable solemnity in its annual recurrence is everlasting and ever new; for precious death of Thy just ones remaineth in the sight of Thy majesty, and the increase of joy is renewed, when we recall the beginning of their eternal happiness. And therefore with the Angels…

Part of the mosaic in the apse of Santa Maria in Trastevere in Rome. St Lawrence, in the middle; on the left, Pope Innocent II (1130-43), who built the church, presents to Christ; on the right, Pope St Callixtus I (ca. 218-22), who was martyred in the neighborhood of this church, and whose relics are kept in it.
The 1960 reform of the Breviary added to the vigil of St Lawrence a completely anomalous feature, something which had never existed before, and does not exist anywhere else; it is the only vigil that has Vespers. [1] A vigil is a separate liturgical observance from its feast, and traditionally, all feasts began with First Vespers, and so a vigil by definition ended once None and the Mass were celebrated. In 1960, however, all the feasts of St Lawrence’s rank lost their first Vespers. [2] His vigil somehow managed to survive the massacres of 1955 and 1960, but as the only vigil attached to a feast with no First Vespers. In order to cover the gap between the vigil and the feast, which now begins with Matins, the vigil was extended to include Vespers; these consist of the regular Office of the feria, but with the Collect of the vigil. For no discernible reason, the series of versicles known as the ferial preces, which are characteristic of penitential days, are omitted from all the vigils in 1960.

[1] The vigil of the Epiphany, which as part of the Christmas season is not a penitential day, is celebrated in a different manner from the vigils of the Saints. It traditionally had First Vespers, on the evening of January 4th, but ended like the other vigils after None. Many medieval Uses extended this custom to the vigil of Christmas as well, but this was not done in the Roman Use.

[2] By 1981, when the Ambrosian Liturgy of the Hours was promulgated, this change was recognized to be a mistake; the modern Ambrosian Office has First Vespers for all feasts, and celebrates Solemnities with Second Vespers.

The Christian Environmentalism that the Media Choose to Ignore

We Need More People in World, Not Fewer...
And the Liturgy to Transform Them

We need more people in the world, not fewer, if we are to solve the world’s problems. And we need more gardeners - I am serious here. For the true gardener is the man transformed in Christ who works in the world to raise it up to what it is meant to be.

It is common nowadays for people to think of man as an unnatural animal whose work necessarily destroys the environment. Much of the back to the land movement, I always feel, has a romantic vision of the past, and assumes that only a man who lives as he did before industrialization can live in harmony with nature. This pessimistic view of modern man could be seen in various influential figures going back to to Rousseau in 18th-century France, a man who hated industrialization and thought that all modern society corrupted ideal man. The ideal for Rousseau was the noble savage who, unlike modern man, could be conceived of as an intrinsic part of nature, living with it as the animals do, rather than in opposition to it.

This may all sound fairly innocuous stuff - a high regard for the environment is good thing, surely? But in fact it is a modern form of neo-paganism, which removes man from his a place as the highest part of creation to something separate from it, and lower than it. This false elevation of the rest of creation to something greater than man in the hierarchy of being has serious, deadly consequences. And I do mean deadly.

Man is not only part of nature, he is absolutely necessary to it - the eco-system needs the interaction of man in order to be complete. Through God’s grace human activity is the answer to all the environmental problems we have, not the cause. It is possible to have cities, heavy industry, mass production, and forms of capitalism that are creative expressions of the God’s plan for the world, and which add to the beauty and the stability of nature. However, we do need a transformation of the culture in order to see a greater realization of this. The formation, which I believe will lead to such an evangelization of the culture, is derived from a liturgically centered piety and is described in the book the Way of Beauty.

For me, the flower garden is the model of natural beauty in so many ways. First, it symbolizes the true end of the natural world, in which its beauty can only be realised through the inspired work of man. It symbolizes what Eden was to become. It is worth noting that Adam was the first gardener and Christ, the new Adam, prayed in the garden during the passion, was buried and resurrected in the garden, and after the resurrection was mistaken by Mary Magdalene for the gardener.

Here is a quote from St Augustine from the Office of Readings on the Feast of St Lawrence, August 10th:
“The garden of the Lord, brethren, includes – yes, it truly includes – not only the roses of martyrs, but also the lilies of virgins, and the ivy of married people, and the violets of widows. There is absolutely no kind of human beings, my dearly beloved, who need to despair of their vocation; Christ suffered for all. It was very truly written about him: who wishes all men to be saved, and to come to the acknowledgement of the truth.”

This may seem a rather innocent little quote about flowers and the things of religion - martyrs and virgins and so on, but in fact it reveals so much about the difference in attitudes between one of the Faith, and the modern world. Here’s how: we see Rousseau’s worldview today in many of the green movements that assume that any influence that man has on the eco-system is bad, because man himself is an unnatural entrant into it, not a part of it.

Millions of people have been killed as a result of a simple philosophical error. If we believe that civilized man’s effect on the environment is necessarily destructive, then the only method of an effective damage limitation is to limit the number of people in the world. The most effective way to do this is to control the population, and, because they do not wish to dispense of the pleasure of sex, the solutions offered are contraception and abortion.

The Christian understanding of man and his interaction with the natural world is very different. The first point to make is that both are imperfect. We are fallen and we live in a fallen world. Man is part of nature, and it is certainly true that his activity can be destructive on the environment (just as he can commit the gravest crimes against his fellows). However, through God’s grace and the proper exercise of free will, he can choose to behave differently. He can work to perfect nature. He has the privilege of participating in the work of God that will eventually lead to the perfection of all things in Christ. Then all man does is in harmony with nature, and with the common good. This is the via pulchritudinis, the Way of Beauty.

There are so many signs in modern culture that reveal this flawed perception of the place of man in relation to his fellows. The changing attitude to the garden is one of these. Even in something that seems so far removed from the issue of abortion, we can see a change which has at its root, in my opinion, the same flaw.

What is the model of natural beauty? For the modern green, neo-pagan it is the wilderness. National parks in the US seek to preserve nature in a way that they perceive as unaffected by man (although this is an impossibility, even the most remote national park is managed wilderness!) I do not say that is a bad thing that some part of nature is preserved, or that the wilderness is not beautiful. Rather, the point is that it is not the pinnacle of nature, and it is not the standard of natural beauty. When man works harmoniously with the environment, then he makes something more beautiful. Beautifully and harmoniously farmed land takes the breath away - as we might see in the countryside of France, Spain, England and Italy, for example, places of which I am familiar. This the sort of landscape in which Wordsworth saw his host of wild golden daffodils.

Higher still is the garden that is cultivated for beauty alone. A garden is a symbol of the Church. Each part, each plant is in harmony with every other, just as every person is unique and has his place in God’s plan, as St Augustine points out in the quote given above. Gardens will have their place in the New Jerusalem. We know this because the description of the City of God in the Book of Revelation contains gardens.

Monday, August 08, 2022

What They Requested, What They Expected, and What Happened: Council Fathers on the Latin Roman Canon

I’ve heard it said many times that in the mid-1960s, the Vatican was telling people that the Roman Canon would remain fixed, in Latin — and, only a short while later, brand new Eucharistic Prayers were rolled off the assembly line and the vernacular was allowed, if not virtually required. I was reminded of the subject by a post in which Fr. Hunwicke writes about Fr. Bryan Houghton’s Unwanted Priest:

Fr Houghton thought of retiring in 1964, when people started tampering with the Mass. “But I decided against [it]: the 1964 Mass had not touched the Canon — which in theory remained silent and in Latin. It was still possible to say the 1964 Mass with a certain amount of devotion. However, I wrote to the bishop handing in my resignation the day on which the Canon of the Mass was touched. He wrote back a charming letter in which he says: ‘Nobody intends to reform the Canon,’ and that ‘the bishops are there precisely to preserve it.’ Poor, dear Bishop! Little did he know what was going to happen.” Yet Bishop Leo Parker had attended all four sessions of the Council; if even he failed to realise the plots that were being hatched...
Re-reading this anecdote reminded me that I have always wanted to find out more about the bait-and-switch that occurred at and shortly after the Second Vatican Council. So I asked our resident expert on all things conciliar, Matthew Hazell, and he supplied me with the raw data that has been turned into this post (so, thank you Matthew!). You can blame any errors in the translations from Latin on me, as I quickly translated all of them for this post.

Although Matthew and I have not been able to source an official Vatican text that says, in the mid-1960s, that the Canon would remain fixed and in Latin, a substantial body of evidence exists in the Acta of Vatican II that certainly seems to indicate that such a guarantee was understood to be in place. Moreover, in the pre-conciliar vota (that is, the lists of desiderata sent in by bishops from all over the world, talking about what they’d like to see considered at the council), it is striking that even bishops who were happy for the entire Mass to be in the vernacular expressly exclude the Roman Canon. Mentions of the use of the vernacular in the Mass are either in connection with only the Mass of the Catechumens (referred to numerous times as the “teaching part of the Mass” or similar), or come with an “except the Canon” clause, as the following abundant examples demonstrate.

This evidence, taken together with my earlier article “The Council Fathers in Support of Latin: Correcting a Narrative Bias,” is more than sufficient to show that certain figures at the Vatican today are… how shall we say this politely?... telling fibs about Vatican II and the modest liturgical reform that was desired and agreed to.


+ Leo Pietsch (aux. Seckau, Austria)

[100] De liturgia divina celebranda facultative in lingua vernacula, Sanctae Missae Canone excepto.

[That a faculty should be given for celebrating the divine liturgy in the vernacular, with the exception of the holy Canon of the Mass.]

+ Jean-François Cuvelier, C.Ss.R. (tit. Circesium) [Vicar Apostolic of Matadi, Belgian Congo (independent since 1960, known as Democratic Republic of the Congo since 1997)

[134] Petitur ut ordinariis concedatur facultas permittendi usum linguae vernaculae in missa, saltem pro prima parte i. e. usque ad Canonem, deinde etiam a « Pater noster » usque ad ultimum evangelium inclusive.

[A request is made that a faculty be conceded to ordinaries for permitting the use of the vernacular language in the Mass, at least for the first part, that is, up to the Canon, and then from the Lord’s Prayer up to the last Gospel inclusive.]

+ Félix-Marie-Honoré Verdet (aux. Nice, France)

[496] Optabile est, mea quidem sententia, ut in priore parte Missae sermo patrius amplitudine maiore fruatur, secluso omnino Canone. Epistula et Evangelium praecipue voce magna atque solemniter pronuntientur ea lingua quam fideles multo facilius intelligunt (translatio enim lectionum, ut opinor, tantam vim non habet ut loco usus patrii sermonis esse valeat).

[It would be choiceworthy, in my opinion, that in the first part of the Mass the local language enjoy a greater amplitude, altogether excluding the Canon. The Epistle and Gospel especially should be pronounced solemnly with a loud voice in that language that the faithful can most understand (for a {printed} translation of the reading, in my view, doesn’t have so much force that it prevails over the use of the local language {proclaimed}).]


+ Patrick Collier (Ossory, Ireland)

[93] Ad fructuosiorem participationem fidelium in sacrificio Missae, nobis videtur esse necessarium habere usum pleniorem linguae vernaculae: id est omnia ante et post Canonem Missae in lingua vernacula, Canon Missae semper in lingua Latina.

[For a more fruitful participation of the faithful in the sacrifice of the Mass, it seems to us necessary to have a fuller use of the vernacular language: that is, everything before and after the Canon of the Mass in the vernacular language, but the Canon of the Mass always in Latin.]

+ Francisco Maria da Silva (aux. Braga, Portugal)

[625] [I]n administratione sacramentorum ac sacramentalium imo in Sancti Sacrificii Missae celebratione, excepto Canone, lingua vulgari uti possit.

[In the administration of sacraments and sacramentals as well as in the celebration of the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass — with the exception of the Canon — the common language can be used.]

+ Jacques Mangers, S.M. (Oslo, Norway)

[637] Etiam aliae quaestiones vere actuales examinandae sunt, v. g. usus linguae vernaculae in functionibus liturgicis, etiam, in celebratione Missae, Canone excepto…

[Other current questions, too, should be truly examined, e.g., the use of the vernacular language in liturgical functions, even in the celebration of the Mass, except for the Canon.]

Stefan Cardinal Wyszynski

++ Stefan Cardinal Wyszynski (Warsaw, Poland)

[677] Inter primaria media ad protegendam participationem fidelium in sacrificio Missae adhiberi potest introductio linguae vernaculae ad stabiles partes Missae ante Offertorium scilicet ad Gloriam, Lectionem, Evangelium et Credo. Reliquae partes Missae, praesertim in Canone, latine recitandae sunt.

[Among the foremost means for promoting the participation of the faithful in the sacrifice of the Mass may be advanced the introduction of the vernacular language to the stable parts of Mass prior to the Offertory, namely, the Gloria, the Lesson, the Gospel, and the Creed. The remaining parts of the Mass, especially the Canon, should be recited in Latin.]

+ Wacław Majewski (aux. Warsaw, Poland)

[706] Ad augendam activam participationem fidelium in Missae Sacrificio videtur mihi Gloria, Credo, Lectio et Evangelium in lingua [707] vernacula inducendum esse, lingua latina tantum in Canone necnon in mutabilibus Missae partibus esse servanda.

[For increasing the active participation of the faithful in the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass it seems to me that the Gloria, Creed, Lesson, and Gospel should be done in the vernacular language, while the Latin language ought to be preserved only in the Canon as well as in the changeable parts of the Mass.]


+ Guido Maria Mazzocco (Adria, Italy)

[22] Pars Missae quae elata voce a Sacerdote legitur, praesertim illa quae didactica dicitur, lingua vulgari, legenda, meo iudicio, videtur, ita ut omnes dare intelligant, sicut antiquo tempore intelligebant. Unica lingua latina, ubique terrarum, servari poterit [23] in Canone. Tali modo populus in divinis rebus, maxime animae necessariis, extraneus non teneretur.

[The part of the Mass that is read by the priest in an elevated voice, especially those that are called instructional, should be read in the vulgar tongue, in my judgment, so that all may understand, just as they understood in ancient times. One single Latin language, everywhere in the world, ought to be retained in the Canon. In such a way the people may not be bound by what is extraneous in divine things that are most necessary for the soul.] 

+ Giuseppe Bonacini (Bertinoro, Italy)

[105] De S. Missae Sacrificio: S. Missae Sacrificium ad pristinam simplicitatem reddatur, quo populus id altius intelligere et scienter participari possit. Quam ob rem lingua latina in Missa tantum quae dicitur «fidelium», vel potius in solo Canone servetur.

[The Holy Sacrifice of the Mass should be brought back to its pristine simplicity, by which the people may be able more deeply to understand it and knowingly participate. Nevertheless the Latin language should be kept in the Mass only for the part called “the Mass of the faithful,” or rather, for the Canon alone.] 

+ Danio Bolognini (Cremona, Italy)

[241] In Rituali et Pontificali linguae vernaculae usum augere, eo tamen modo ut lingua latina in formulis Sacramentorum et in S. Missae Canone retineatur.

[Increase the use of the vernacular in the Ritual and the Pontifical, yet in such a way that the Latin language is retained in the formulas of the sacraments and in the Canon of Holy Mass.] 

+ Felicissimo Stefano Tinivella, O.F.M. (Diano-Teggiano, Italy)

[247] Lingua vulgaris in Sacramentorum administratione et functionibus sacris, in Missa extra Canonem, imponatur ut christifideles vitaliter intersint.

[The vulgar tongue should be imposed in the administration of the sacraments and sacred functions, and in the Mass apart from the Canon, so that the faithful may be more vitally involved.] 

++ Angelo Paino (Messina, Italy)

[373] Servata lingua latina in canone Missae et in essentialibus relate ad sacramentorum collationem, optandum videtur ut partes quae ad fidelium instructionem sunt, lingua patria legantur eo fine ut populus attente et digne participet. Pari ratione revisenda videntur caeremoniae et ornamenta ecclesiastica quae non cohaerent nostrae aetatis exigentiis spiritualibus.

[The Latin language being preserved in the Canon of the Mass and in the essentials relating to the conferral of the sacraments, it seems better that the parts that are for the instruction of the faithful should be read in the local language so that the people may participate more attentively and worthily. For the same reason, it seems that the ecclesiastical ceremonies and ornaments ought to be revised which no longer conform to the spiritual needs of our times.]

+Paul Yoshiyuki Furuya


+ Paul Yoshiyuki Furuya (Kyoto, Japan)

[78] Exoptatur ut permittatur litare Sacrum in lingua vernacula, excepto Canone.

[It is greatly to be desired that the liturgy be offered in the vernacular language, except for the Canon.]

+ Lucas Katsusaburo Arai (Yokohama, Japan)

[90] De usu linguae vernaculae in tota Missa, canone excepto.

[On the use of the vernacular language in the whole Mass, except for the Canon.]

+ Ignatius Mummadi (Guntur, India)

[132] Nonne expedit uti lingua vulgari cuiuslibet regionis in Missa, exceptione facta evidenter de Canone?

[Would it not be profitable to use the vulgar tongue of whatever region in the Mass, with an obvious exception being made for the Canon?]

++ Joseph Mark Gopu (Hyderabad, India)

[134] Usus linguae regionalis in prima parte S. Missae augeri potest, praesertim quoad epistolam et evangelium sed non in Canone Missae.

[The use of the regional language in the first part of the Holy Mass can be increased, especially as to the epistle and Gospel, but not in the Canon of the Mass.]

+ Antony Padiyara (Ootacamund, India)

[184] Valde suadendum est omnes partes Missae excepto tamen Canone, lingua vulgari recitari, eo fine ut fideles active participent.

[It is exceedingly recommended that every part of the Mass except the Canon be in the vulgar tongue, to the end that the faithful may actively participate.]

+ Jean-Rosière-Eugène Arnaud, M.E.P. (vic. ap. Thakhek, Laos)

[379] Pour le bien des fidèles on souhaiterait d’avoir la permission d’user de la langue qu’ils comprennent, en dehors du Canon ou au moins jusqu’à l’Offertoire.

[For the sake of the faithful it would be desirable to be allowed to use the language they understand, outside the Canon or at least until the Offertory.]

Pietro Maleddu, O.F.M. Conv. (ap. pref. Ankang, China)

[594] Lingua latina in Officio Divina et in toto Canone Missae, excepto «Paternoster», retineatur.

[The Latin language should be retained in the Divine Office and in the whole Canon of the Mass, with the exception of the Lord’s Prayer.]

+ Manuel António Pires


+ Manuel António Pires (Silva Porto, Angola)

[126] 3. Usus linguae vernaculae in sacramentorum administratione, formula excepto. 4. Idem in celebratione sancti sacrificii Missae, Canone integro excepto. (Excepta tantum duplici consecratione?)

[3. The use of the vernacular language in the administration of the sacraments, except for the forms. 4. The same in the celebration of the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, the entire Canon excepted.]

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