Thursday, March 19, 2015

The Theology of the Offertory - Part 7.7 - The Use of Seville

Seville is a very ancient center of Christianity on the Iberian peninsula; it had a bishop already by 303 A.D., when Ss Justa and Rufina were martyred there in the persecution of Diocletian. It is of course famous as the see of St Isidore, the great encyclopedist of the Middle Ages, and a Doctor of the Church. The cathedral is the largest Gothic church in existence, and the third-largest church in the world; the old Catholic Encyclopedia states that the plan of the chapter was to build a structure “on so vast a scale that posterity should deem it the work of madmen.” It was begun in 1403, and completed in 1506, a miraculously swift achivement in the history of Europe’s great cathedrals.

The cathedral of Seville and its massive bell-tower, La Giralda. The church occupies the site of a former mosque, which was converted into the cathedral when the city was reconquered in 1248, but later torn down to make way for the present structure. The lower part of the Giralda is the minaret of the mosque, the upper part is an additional of the later 16th-century. (image from wikipedia.)
Unlike that of Toledo, the Missal of Seville, printed in the city itself in 1565, contains no Ritus servandus, the long rubric which describes how the Mass is said. Much of the Offertory is similar to that of Toledo, which is described in the previous article but one of this series; the most important difference is that Seville includes in its missal the ancient and widely-used Offertory prayer Suscipe Sancta Trinitas, which Toledo omits. It is not said, however, as part of the Offertory ritual itself. After the introductory prayers (the Judica me, the confession etc.) there are four Apologias; as I did with the Missal of Toledo, I will give the text of these in Latin and English in a separate post. There follow two versions of Suscipe Sancta Trinitas, one to be said “post Offerenda – after the things which will be offered”, and another version “for the dead”, which is as far as I can tell unique to Seville. No rubric is given as to when exactly these prayers are said, with what ritual (if any), or even whether they were obligatory; at Toledo, the Apologias were said “if (the priest) wishes, and time permits.”

The first version reads very much like the longer recension found in the French Uses.
Suscipe, sancta Trinitas, unus Deus, hanc oblationem, quam tibi offero pro me peccatore, omnium hominum miserrimo, et pro omnibus parentibus et benefactoribus meis, et omnibus fidelibus vivis et defunctis, in memoriam Annuntiationis, Incarnationis, Nativitatis, Passionis, Resurrectionis Ascensionisque Domini nostri Jesu Christi, et adventus Spiritus Sancti, et in veneratione beatae Mariae semper Virginis, et in honore omnium Sanctorum tuorum qui tibi placuerunt ab initio mundi, et eorum quorum hodie festivitas celebratur, et eorum quorum hic nomina et reliquiae hic habentur, ut illis proficiat ad honorem, nobis autem ad salutem; ut illi omnes Sancti pro nobis intercedere dignentur in caelis, quorum memoriam facimus in terris. Per.
Receive, o holy Trinity, one God, this offering, which I offer to Thee for myself a sinner, most wretched of all men, and for all my relatives and benefactors, and all the faithful, living and deceased, in memory of the Annunciation, Incarnation, Birth, Passion, Resurrection and Ascension of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the coming of the Holy Spirit; and in veneration of the Blessed Mary ever-Virgin, and in honor of all Thy Saints who have pleased you from the beginning of the world, and of those whose feast is celebrated today, and whose names and relics are kept here; that it may profit unto their honor and our salvation; that all those Saints whose memory we keep on earth, may deign to intercede for us in Heaven.
In accordance with the tenor of the whole Roman Rite and its manner of praying for the dead, the version said at Requiem Masses is entirely focused on the deceased then being commemorated.
Suscipe, sancta Trinitas, hanc oblationem, quam tibi offero pro animabus famulorum famularumque tuarum, et omnium fidelium defunctorum, et eorum, quorum hodie memoriam agimus, ut requiem aeternam dones eis inter Sanctos et electos tuos, ut in illorum consortio vita perfruamur aeterna. Per.
Receive, o holy Trinity, one God, this offering, which I offer to Thee for the souls of Thy servants and handmaids, and all the faithful departed, and of those whose memory we keep today; that Thou may give them eternal rest among Thy Saints and elect, that we may enjoy eternal life in their company.
The Offertory proper begins with wine being put in the chalice, with the words of Psalm 74, “Hunc humiliat, et hunc exaltat: quia calix in manu Domini vini meri, plenus misto. – One he putteth down, and another he lifteth up: For in the hand of the Lord there is a cup of strong wine full of mixture.” When the water is put in, the use of Seville prescribes that almost exactly the same words be said as in the Use of Toledo; however, no indication is given as to the ritual that accompanies them.
Ex latere Domini nostri Jesu Christi sanguis et aqua exivit; et ideo nos pariter commiscemus, ut misericors Deus utrumque ad medelam animarum nostrarum sanctificare dignetur. Per eundem etc. – From the side of our Lord Jesus Christ came forth blood and water; and therefore we likewise mix (them), that God in His mercy may deign to sanctify them both for the healing of our souls. Through the same Our Lord etc.
The corporal is then spread, (the rubrics do not say by whom), with the words “In tuo conspectu, Domine, quaesumus, haec munera nostra tibi placita sint; ut nos tibi placere valeamus. Per. – In Thy sight, o Lord, we ask, may these our gifts be pleasing to Thee; that we may be able to please Thee. Through Our Lord etc.”

The beginning of the Mass of Corpus Christi, from the 1565 Missal of Seville. 
The next three prayers, at the offering of the host, the offering of the chalice, and the covering of the chalice, are almost identical to those said at Toledo. The first reads “Acceptabilis sit majestati tuae omnipotens Deus, haec oblatio, quam tibi offerimus pro reatibus, et facinoribus nostris, et pro stabilitate sanctae Dei Ecclesiae Catholicae. Per. – May this offering be acceptable to Thy majesty, almighty God, which we offer to Thee for our sins and offenses, and for the stability of God’s holy Catholic Church. Through Our Lord etc.” The second is “Offerimus tibi, Domine, calicem Christi Filii tui, humiliter deprecantes clementiam tuam, ut ante conspectum divinae majestati tuae, cum odore suavitatis ascendat. Per eundum Christum. – We offer to Thee, o Lord, the chalice of Christ, Thy Son, humbly beseeching Thy clemency, that before the sight of Thy divine majesty, it may ascend with the odor of sweetness. Through the same Christ our Lord. Amen.”

Seville does not use the term “filiola – little daughter”, “hijuela” in Spanish, for the pall, as does the Missal of Toledo. The prayer said at the covering is: “Hanc oblationem, quaesumus, omnipotens Deus, placatus accipe, et omnium offerentium, et eorum pro quibus offertur, peccata indulge. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. – Peaceably accept this offering, we ask, almighty God, and forgive the sins of all who offer (it), and of those for whom it is offered. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.”

The prayers said at the incensation of the offerings are also similar to those of Toledo. The blessing of the incense is “Ab illo sanctificeris, in cujus honore cremaberis. – May thou be sanctified (‘blessed’ is much more common) by Him in whose honor thou shalt be burned.” While the altar is incensed, the priest says “Placare, quaesumus, Domine, hoc thure, et mise-rere nostri, parcens peccatis nostris; et praesta propitius, ut bonus odor simus in vitam aeternam. Amen. – Be thou reconciled, we ask, o Lord, by this incense, and have mercy upon us, sparing our sins; and grant in Thy mercy, that we may be a good odor unto eternal life. Amen.”

Seville then adds a second prayer for the incensation, which is also found in some medieval sacramentaries: “Omnipotens Deus, qui suscepisti munera Abel, Noe, Melchisedec, Aaron, Samuelis et omnium sanctorum tuorum, sic et de manu peccatorum suscipere digneris incensum istud in conspectu tuo, in odorem suavitatis, in remissionem omnium peccatorum nostrorum. Per. – Almighty God, who received the gifts of Abel, Noah, Melchisedec, Aaron, Samuel, and all Thy Saints; so also may Thou deign to receive this incense in Thy sight from the hand of sinners, unto the odor of sweetness, and the remission of all our sins. Through.”

The parish of the Divine Savior in Seville (image from Spanish wikipedia.)
At the washing of the hands, only a few words of Psalm 25 are given, “I will wash my hands among the innocent.” The priest then says a prayer “Quaeso, omnipotens Deus, da mihi ita manus lavare, ut Dominicum corpus et sanguinem pura mente possim tractare. – I ask, almighty God; grant me so to wash my hands, that I may be able to treat the Lord’s Body and Blood with a pure mind.” There follows the prayer In spiritu humilitatis, which is said bowing low: “In a spirit of humility, and in contrite heart, may we be received by Thee, o Lord; and so may my sacrifice take place in Thy sight this day, that it may be received by Thee, and please Thee, o Lord.” This differs from the Dominican Use only in changing “our” to “my”, as noted in bold. The Veni sanctificator is not said, nor any of the common variants of it.

The priest then stands straight and blesses the bread and wine together, saying “In nomine sanctae Trinitatis, et individuae Unitatis, descendat Angelus benedictionis, et consecrationis super hoc munus – In the name of the Holy Trinity, and undivided Unity, may the angel of blessing and consecration descend upon this gift. Amen.”

Turning to the people, he then says the Orate fratres as follows, again similar to the Use of Toledo: “Obsecro vos, fratres, ut oretis pro me peccatore ad Dominum, ut meum sacrificium, vestrumque votum sit Deo acceptum. - I beseech you, brethren, that you pray for me a sinner to the Lord, that my sacrifice and your prayer may be acceptable to God.” The response is “Suscipiat omnipotens Deus sacrificium de manibus tuis, ad laudem et gloriam nominis sui, et ad tuam et nostram salutem, et omnium circumstantium populorum. – May God almighty receive the sacrifice from thy hands, for thy salvation and ours, and all the peoples here present.”

This series will continue with some prayers from the Missal of Seville.

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