Friday, February 27, 2015

The Theology of the Offertory - Part 7.5 - The Use of Toledo

The Iberian peninsula was the last part of Western Europe to adopt the Roman Rite; a detailed history of how its ancient Mozarabic liturgy was gradually replaced by the Roman, starting in the later decades of the 11th-century, is given in the old Catholic Encyclopedia. When the Roman Rite was introduced into the various kingdoms which now form the nations of Spain and Portugal, the Offertory prayers were certainly not new; they were, however, still in the process of formation, as I have documented elsewhere. Like all the later additions to the Mass, (such as the Sequences, the prayers at the beginning of the Mass, etc.), they were subject to a great deal of variation in the Medieval period, in Spain no less than elsewhere.

For this series, I will describe the Offertory in the pre-Tridentine missal of the Primatial See of Toledo in this article, and that of Seville, one of the most ancient Christian centers in Spain, in a later article. This selection is determined partly by the materials available for consultation, and partly because within those materials, these are the two most interesting and complex variants. Many other Spanish cathedrals used forms of the Offertory which were very similar to these two; others simply adopted the Roman form. Among the latter is also the Use of Braga, the Primatial See of Portugal, in which the Offertory varies only slightly from the Roman Use; I will therefore not include it in this survey, although it was the only See on the peninsula to retain its medieval use after the Tridentine reform.

The Cathedral of Toledo (image from wikipedia)
The Use of Toledo

The Missal of Toledo, printed at Lyon in France in 1551, (available on googlebooks) is unusual for its period in that it contains a fairly detailed “Ordo celebrandi Missam – the Order for celebrating Mass.” Unfortunately, this Ordo does not always agree with the rubrics given in the missal itself, and mixes the rites of both Solemn and Low Mass. Here I will follow the order of the Solemn Mass.

While the subdeacon sings the Epistle, the priest or the deacon opens the corporal in the middle of the altar, directly over the altar stone, saying, “In nomine Patris etc. In tuo conspectu, quaesumus, Domine, haec nostra munera tibi placita sint; ut nos tibi placere valeamus. – In the name of the Father etc. May these our gifts be pleasing to Thee in Thy sight, we ask, O Lord; that we may be able to please Thee.” To these words are added, from the end of Psalm 23, “Lift up your gates, O ye princes, and be ye lifted up, O eternal gates: and the King of Glory shall enter in. Who is this King of Glory? the Lord who is strong and mighty: the Lord mighty in battle. The Lord of hosts, he is the King of Glory.” This may also be done at the beginning of the Mass, or before the Gospel, or after it.

The Ordo celebrandi says that the chalice and host are prepared before the singing of the Gospel, but a rubric in the missal says that it may also be done before the Mass, or before the Offertory. (These variants may be for the celebration of Low and Sung Masses.) As the priest or the deacon lays the host on the paten, he says “Benedictio Dei Pa+tris omnipotentis, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti descendat et maneat super hanc hostiam tibi Deo Patri offerendam. Amen. – May the blessing of God, the Fa+ther almighty, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit, descend and remain upon this host that is to be offered to Thee, God the Father. Amen.” (It is unusual for deacons to bless something in this way, but the letter of the rubric clearly says “either the deacon, or the priest himself” does this.)

The missal gives a prayer to be said while cleaning the inside of the chalice, “Dignare Domine mundare vas istud, in quo sumere preciosum sanctum corpus tuum valeam. Qui cum Patre etc. – Deign, o Lord, to cleanse this vessel, that I may be able to receive in it Thy holy and precious Body. Who with the Father.” It is odd that the Ordo celebrandi makes no mention of it; I strongly suspect that “sanctum corpus” instead of “sanguinem” is a printer’s error. As he pours the wine into the chalice, the priest or deacon says, “Misce quaesumus Domine in calice isto, quod manavit ex latere tuo, ut fiat in remissionem peccatorum nostrorum. Qui cum Patre etc. – Mix, we ask, o Lord, in this chalice, that which came forth from Thy side, that it may be unto the remission of our sins. Who with the Father etc.”

The deacon or an acolyte then proffers the water to be blessed, saying “Give the blessing, lord.”; the priest says “Ab illo benedicatur, cujus spiritus super aquas ferebatur. In nomine Patris etc. – May it be blessed by Him, whose Spirit moved above the waters. In the name of the Father etc.” The priest then pours a small amount of the water on the floor, saying “Ex latere Domini nostri Jesu Christi sanguis et aqua exivit. – From the side of our Lord Jesus Christ came forth blood and water.” He continues with “haec ideo nos pariter commiscemus – therefore we likewise mix these things”, and then pours a few drops into the chalice, saying, “ut misericors Deus utrumque ad medelam animarum nostrarum sanctificare dignetur. Per eundem etc. – that God in His mercy may deign to sanctify them both for the healing of our souls. Through the same etc.”

Two leaves of the 1551 Missal of Toledo
Assuming that this is all done before the Gospel, when the priest has read the Offertory, he receives the paten and host from the deacon, and standing in the middle of the altar, lifts it with both hands, and raising his eyes, says “Acceptabilis sit majestati tuae, omnipotens Deus, haec nostra oblatio, quam tibi offerimus pro reatibus, et facinoribus nostris, et pro stabilitate sanctae Catholicae et Apostolicae Ecclesiae. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. – May this our offering be acceptable to Thy majesty, almighty God, which we offer to Thee for our sins and offenses, and for the stability of the holy Catholic and Apostolic Church. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.” He then makes the sign of the cross with the paten and host, saying “In the name of the Father etc.”, and lays the host on the corporal above the altar stone.

The same is done with the chalice, the prayer being “Offerimus tibi, Domine, Jesu Christi Filii tui calicem, humiliter implorantes clementiam tuam, ut ante conspectum divinae majestati tuae, cum odore suavitatis ascendat. Per eundum Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. – We offer to Thee, o Lord, the chalice of Jesus Christ, Thy Son, humbly imploring Thy clemency, that before the sight of Thy divine majesty, it may ascend with the odor of sweetness. Through the same Christ our Lord. Amen.” The chalice is set behind the host, and then covered with a small corporal, which is called “filiola (the little daughter)” in Latin, “hijuela” in Spanish. This is also accompanied by a prayer: “Hanc oblationem, quæsumus, omnipotens Deus, placatus accipe, et omnium offerentium, et eorum pro quibus tibi offertur, peccata indulge. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. – Peaceably accept this offering, we ask, almighty God, and forgive the sins of all who offer (it), and of those for whom it is offered to Thee. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.” The Ordo celebrandi specifies that it is to be folded (plicaturas habeat), both to cover and decorate the chalice (ut calicem et tegat et exornet).

Bowing low and folding his hands, the priest says “Domine Deus, omnipotens Pater, bene+dic et sanctifica hoc sacrificium laudis, quod tibi oblatum est ad honorem, et gloriam nominis tui, et parce peccatis populi tui, et exaudi orationem meam, et dimitte mihi omnia peccata mea. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. – Lord God, almighty Father, bless + and sanctify this sacrifice of praise, which is offered to Thee for the honor and glory of Thy name, and forbear the sins of Thy people, and hear my prayer, and forgive me all my sins. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.”

In the Solemn Mass, incense is then blessed with the same blessing as in the Roman Rite. The words which the priest says while incensing are, “Placare, Domine, per hoc incensum mihi et populo tuo, parcens peccatis nostris, et quiescat ira et furor tuus, et praesta propitius, ut bonus odor simus tibi in vitam aeternam. Amen. – Be thou reconciled, o Lord, through this incense, to me and to Thy people, forbearing our sins; and may Thy wrath and furor rest, and grant in Thy mercy, that we may be a good odor to Thee, unto eternal life. Amen.”

As in other rites, such as that of Paris, the people may then present their offerings; if this is done, the priest “gives a blessing to the people, and extending his stole to those who make the offerings with his right hand, says, ‘Centuplum accipias, et vitam aeternam possideas in regno Dei. Amen. – May thou receive a hundred-fold, and possess eternal life in the kingdom of God. Amen.’ ”

This is followed by the sermon, and in parish churches, by the blessing of bread, with the following prayers: “Adjutorium nostrum. Sit nomen Domini. Bene+dic, Domine, creaturam istam panis, sicut benedixisti quinque panes in deserto; ut omnes gustantes ex eo recipiant sanitatem tam animæ quam corporis. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. Bene+dictio Dei Patris omnipotentis, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti descendat et maneat super hunc panem, et super omnes ex eo comedentes. – Our help is in the name. Blessed be. (as in the Pontifical blessing). Bless +, o Lord, this creature of bread, as Thou blessed the five loaves in the desert; that all who taste thereof may receive health of both soul and body. Through Christ our Lord. Amen. May the bless+ing of God, the Father almighty, the Son and the Holy Spirit, come down and abide upon this bread, and upon all that eat thereof.”

At the Lavabo, only verses 6, 7 and 9 of Psalm 25 are printed in the missal, but the Ordo celebrandi says that the priest may say all the verses (from 6-12) said in the Roman Rite. Bowing low again, and “cum gemitu – with a groan”, the priest then says In spiritu humilitatis and Veni Sancte Spiritus. The former differs from the Roman Rite exactly as in the Dominican Use: “In a spirit of humility, and in contrite heart, may we be received by Thee, o Lord; and so may our sacrifice take place in Thy sight this day, that it may be received by Thee, and please Thee, o Lord.” The latter reads as follows: “Veni sancte Spiritus, sanctificator, sanctifica hoc sacrificium, de manibus meis tibi praeparatum. – Come, o Holy Spirit, the sanctifier, and sanctify this sacrifice, prepared for Thee from my hands.”

He continues with “In nomine sanctae Trinitatis, et individuae Unitatis, descendat - In the name of the Holy Trinity, and undivided Unity, may there descend”; he then stands up and says “hic Angelus bene+dictionis, et consecrationis super hoc munus. Amen. – here the angel of bless+ing and consecration upon this gift. Amen.” At this point, there is a discrepancy between the rubric of the missal and the Ordo celebrandi. The former says that he makes the sign of the Cross once over “the whole offering” (i.e. the host and chalice). The latter says that at the words “blessing and consecration”, he makes the sign of the cross over first the host, then the chalice, with two fingers; after which, at the words “upon this gift”, he touches the host and chalice with his hands.

Toledo’s form of the Orate fratres is as follows: “Obsecro vos, fratres, orate pro me peccatore ad Dominum, ut meum sacrificum pariterque vestrum votum sit Deo acceptum. – I beseech you, brethren, pray for me a sinner to the Lord, that my sacrifice and your prayer may be acceptable to God.” The response is “Suscipiat omnipotens Deus sacrificium de manibus tuis, et dimittat tibi omnia peccata tua, ad laudem et gloriam nominis sancti sui, et utilitatem Ecclesiae suae Sanctae. – May God almighty receive the sacrifice from thy hands, and forgive thee all thy sins, to the praise and glory of His holy name, and the good of his holy Church.”

The main façade of Toledo Cathedral, seen from Plaza del Ayuntmiento. The brick work on lower right side is part of a belltower which was begun to match the one on the left, but never finished. Within it is the Chapel of the Sacrament, founded by Francisco Jiménez Cardinal de Cisneros to preserve the Mozarabic liturgy. (image from wikipedia)
Two observations

Two unusual characteristics of the Missal of Toledo call for special note. One is the absence of the prayer Suscipe Sancta Trinitas, which is found (with many variants) in every other Use I have studied thus far. The other is the presence of two long prayers which the priest may say after the Lavabo “if he wishes, and time permits,” while standing at the middle of the altar. The first of these is labelled “An apologetic prayer of St Ambrose”, the other simply “another prayer.” In a previous article of this series, I have described the “apologia”, a prayer in which the priest protests his unworthiness to offer the Eucharistic Sacrifice. Many early sacramentaries contain prayers of this type, but Toledo is highly unusual in having preserved them so late as the mid-16th century. Elsewhere, they had largely disappeared by the end of the 12th century, in no small measure because they tend to be unbelievably long. They were effectively replaced by the collections of prayers, to be said in preparation for Mass, which can be found in most later Missals, including that of St Pius V. I will give the Apologias of the Toledo Missal in Latin and English in a separate post.

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